Tuesday, 18 September 2012

Strategic Human Resource Management Dissertation

1. Introduction
When we talk about the developing employees in Human Resource Management (HRM) perspective, we definitely refer to a process of helping new employees adapt to their new organizations and work responsibilities. These programs generally designed to provide assistance to the employees, so that they can understand the working place and can make sure to contribute their best to the organisation in achieving the organizational goals and personal goals. The organisation designs various training program to develop the employees in its organization as well as their productivity in their work place (Burack. 1973). Simply we can say it is process of learning the ropes. When employees get the better understanding of their work place can contribute their highest productivity. Employees able to get the better understanding of the work place as well as can accept the behaviours of the organization views by the active patronage of the Human Resource Management of the organisation. Employee training helps the employees to attain the personal goal (Aguilera and Denker, 2004).

In this report we will explore the arena of various employee trainings and its outcome to the organization. The overall analysis is followed a literature review from the viewpoint of employee training and development process. The further analysis is the case based argument which will focus on the employee during and after training program of the organization. This report will support the analysis the transferring system of employee training and its significance as well as the evaluation of the training programme.

The organization needs to take some initiative to develop the employee’s understanding about the organisation, when he or she join in the organization. During the initiation of the employment, employees are not able to contribute their highest productivity. The first joining time is very unproductive. Organization can increase the understanding level of the employees through the various training programs (Nadler, Leonard, Wiggs, and Garland, 1986).
Organizations need well adjusted, trained, and experienced people to perform its activities. Now the organization’s work place is dynamic. The work structure has become more complex prior to the previous work process. Now it is essential to understand the work place and education qualification of the employees has been increased. The analytical approach of the job has been more increased. For example, the planes don’t cause airline accidents, people make it happen to the accident. Approximately three quarters of collisions, crashes, and other airline mishaps result from pilot or air traffic controller errors or insufficient maintenance. The environment and structural cause is also taking account for the remaining accident. Here we cite this statistics to understand the importance of employee training and development. These types of accident and failure can be reduced by taking the initiative of the employee training and development.

2. Literature Review
Literature review explains various previous researches related to a study. This literature review is important to understand the background of the research study and framing the research study. Literature review depends on the research objectives. So, before framing and arranging research study we should evaluate research objectives. Here research objectives for this study are given below.

• Understanding the Employee Training
• Analyze the Employee Training Process
• Understanding the Training Process to Gain Competitive Advantage
• Analyzing the Importance and Benefits of Before and After Training
• Understanding the Transfer strategy

Depending upon research objectives of this study, literature of this study will cover concept of employee training, evaluate relation among before, during, and after training, identifying key strategy of transferring, understand importance of employee training, and finally it will demonstrate the importance of training outcomes.

2.1 Understanding Employee Training
Employee training is a process of gathering experience through learning in an organization and its work environment. (Boxal, 1994) stated that, employee training tries to seek the relatively permanent change in employees that employees can able to increase their job performance. According to (Legge, 1995 and Session, 1996), training help employees that are engaged in changing skills, knowledge, attitude, or behaviour in the work place. This may mean changing what employees know, how they work or their attitude toward their job, co-workers, managers and the organizations. Managers possibly think the human resource management to provide assistance, decide when employee need training and also try to find out what form of training they needs. According to (Schuler, 1992), Employee training considered as a strategic technique to develop the productivity of the employees within an organization (Brester and Larsen, 1992).

2.2 Understanding Employee Development
Mohaney and Deckop (1986) stated that, Employee development is a technique to increase the employee’s productivity. Employee development is a process of increasing the learning output of the organization. (McGee et al., 1995; Porter, 1980; Short et al., 2007) analyzed the employee development as; employee development focuses on the future jobs of the organization that can be created better organizational development. (Porter 1980) developed the concept, to progress the career development; employees need new skills and abilities in the organization. Organization faces huge change due to the changing world. Its work environment varies time to time. To work effectively and efficiently organization needs to develop and upgrade the employees. Training gives a employee the way of work and its methods as well as motivation (Panagiotou, 2006, 2007). When the career of the employee progress, then he or she needs better abilities to understand the organization.

2.3 Employee Training for Capturing Competitive Advantage
According to (DiMaggio and Powel 1991), Capturing competitive advantage of employee development is way to develop the organization’s growth in an organization. Organizations develop number of strategy to increase the organizational development and capturing the competitive advantage (Becker and Huselid, 2006). Employee training helps the employees to initiate their job with new development knowledge of organization as well as the technique and responsibility that organization holds (Boxall, 2003). Organization set the employee training through the evaluation of its technique considering the organizational technique. According to (Purcell, 1999, 2001), employees need to know the work that is to be done, the ability and understanding it needs, and the organizational technique to the work which will be done within the time.

2.4 Determining the Needs of Employee Training
(Pfeffer, 1998; Huselid, 1995) analyzed the training needs of an organization as; the group of people doesn’t have equal capacity to perform employees target responsibility, because people have a clear output to the organization. In accordance to (Marchington and Grugulis, 2000), Employee training can be determined by the evaluation of the job, ability needs for the job to be done, the expected feedback from the employees, which have a active role on the employee development. Boxall and Purcell (2003, 2008) stated that, Human resource managers need to compare the value received from the training and also should compare the training performance with the costs of the organization. According to (Boon et al, 2009), the incurred training may not bring the expected value; it can bring higher value or lower value. So organization needs to develop the employee training in accordance with its expected return.

2.5 Conceptualizing Training Method
Organizations developed various types of the training methods. The methods of employee training methods differ from organization to organization. According to Brewster, (1999, 2006); most of the organization developed several types of methods to increase the performance of the employees. Transferring is a training method which helps employees to initiate the organizational development (Boselie et al., 2002, 2003). This research has found the process of development within an organization by the several methods which are as follows:

 Job Rotation
 Understudy Assignments
 Classroom Lectures
 Films and Videos
 Simulation Exercise
 Vestibule Training
 Transferring

According to (Boon et al, 2009), the employee training may be on the job training or off the job training. On the job training means learning through the works, and off the job training means learning through the nurturing. (Panagiotou, 2006; Peteraf and Shanley, 1997) analyzed the outcomes of the employee training as, the training or development in an organization must be implemented through the cost effective way, because the cost has major influence on the development of the organization’s performance. That is, the benefits must be the outweigh the costs of the learning experience.

3. Evaluating Training and Development Effectiveness
Human Resource Management critically analyzes the training outcomes of an organization through the learning process of an organization. In this report we will consider the evaluation of training outcomes from transferring. To analyze this project we need to understand some methods of employee training within an organization. Analyzing the training methods determines the effectiveness of an organization to ensure better organizational development (Taylor, 2005). It is not enough to merely assume that any training an organization offers is effective. We need to develop substantive data to determine whether our training effort is achieving its goals. Here is the substantial analysis in the following.

3.1 Evaluating Transfer Programs
Transfer program is easy to develop in an organization to generate a new training program. But it will be difficult to find out outcomes of the training program, which will make the training efforts can be rationalized. Sadly research indicates that nearly half of the training programs are not evaluated in the substantive outcomes, for example employee retention, satisfaction, and productivity. The following approach for evaluating transfer training outcomes is generalized across the organizations. Beyond the general positive output of the training, training must be developed on how the participant has learned, how open they use their new skills on their job. Or the changing pattern of behavior must be evaluated (Gratton. and Ghoshal, 2003). The use of their new skills must be evaluated through the pattern of their response in the critical moment of an organization. The following analysis will focus on the desired outcomes of transfer training evaluation.
3.2 Performance Based Evaluation Measures
The output of transfer training program evaluation has three methods. These are pre post training performance method, post training performance method, and pre post training with control group method. These three methods has direct impact on the training outcomes of an organization which will evaluate the transfer training (Mondy, Wayne, Noe, and Robert, 1996). The outcomes of the transfer training will develop through the evaluation of the outcomes. The evaluation technique analyzed as follows.
3.2.1 Post Training Performance Method
This is the first approach in the evaluation of transfer training outcomes. The managers evaluate the training program’s outcome after the training. The performance is determined after the attending the training program through the behavioral change in their workplace of an organization (Grensing and Prophal, 2002). For an example, let assume a employee has been transferred to the workplace of an organization which have made the employee to have a learning platform to increase the understanding level. The organization can follow up their employees who have transferred for the training program. The managers take an initiative to measure the output of the transfer training for one month. Then the manager can get their result of transfer training through the evaluation technique. Post training performance method may overstate the training outcomes in the organization.

3.2.2 Pre Post Training Performance Methods
In this method of evaluation the participants of the transfer training program are evaluated prior to the training and rate the performance on actual job. After instruction the evaluator has been kept unaware, for this reason the employee is measured for re-evaluation. The post training performance method, the overstated performance is attributed to the instruction. The overall analysis has brought the idea of pre post training performance method, which demonstrates directly to the job behavior of the organization (Arthur, 1995). The pre post training performance does not overstate the performance of the employees. We have understood the methods as the evaluation of the training programs based on the difference in performance before and after transfer training of employees.

3.2.3 Pre Post Training Performance with Control Group Method
The most sophisticated evaluative approach is the pre post training performance with control group method. In this approach the evaluation technique, it needs to develop two groups which make the evaluation on the basis of actual job performance. Members of the control group work on the job but don’t follow the instruction. The experimental group does the work within the organization to evaluate the training program. At the end of the training the groups are re evaluated within the organization. The experimental groups evaluate the training. If the training is really effective, the experimental group’s performance will have improved and will perform substantially better than the control groups. The job performance is measured through the instruction programs (Delery, 1998). In spite of having numerous training methods and development programs these three appear to the most widely recognized. Furthermore, the latter to methods are preferred, because these methods are provided a stronger measure of behavioral change directly attributed to the training program.

3.3 Understanding Individual Needs and Career Goals
Human resource management works with the people in the organization. The employees may have different needs. Finding the individual needs and goal is the key concept of human resource practice. The employees may have different career plan, HRM knows the career goal and helps to go ahead, which make them able to get the clear understanding through transfer training (Cherrington, David, 1995). To determine the positive training program, HR manager must need to know the individual needs of the employees within the organization. The following analysis will focus on the building a strong relationship with the employees.

3.3.1 Building Positive Co-operation
To understand the output of the transfer training program, building co-operation in the workplace helps to complete the works successfully and easily. Human resource management builds a positive network of co-operation to analyze the output of the training program. Proper co-operation brings the proper solution for the organization, which leads to the development of the organization.

3.3.2 Training & Development
Training is way to make the employee competence to face the organizational goal and objective. Transfer training helps the employees to gather their best knowledge to the organization. Organization faces huge change due to the changing world. Its work environment varies time to time. To work effectively and efficiently organization needs to develop and upgrade the employees, which is able through the training method of the organization. Training gives a employee the way of work and its methods as well as motivation.

3.3.3 Establishing Rewords & Pay Plans
The transfer training program helps the employee to increase the productivity. The productivity helps the employees to break the records, which make the organization happy and make some decision to provide rewords and pay plan to the employees. the rewards make the employees motivated to give more concentration on work. The employees work for money. A good pay plan satisfies the employees. Pay is the obvious thing of job. Human resource management practice plans to pay its employees and also try to give rewords to make satisfied and motivated (Becker, & Gehart, 2000).

3.3.4 Establishing Performance Management
The transfer training method needs to evaluate which is the way to make the employees performance evaluation. The only way to make effective evaluation is performance based evaluation, which needs to establish performance management to evaluate transfer system (Chew, & Sharma, 2006). Human resource management takes various measurement processes to measure the performance and set performance yardstick for individuals. It also helps to reduce the error and make aware the employees about their weakness and strengths.

3.3.5 Providing Equal Opportunity
The transfer training needs to ensure the equal opportunity for the organization development, which will bring the opportunity to provide the better output for the organization. This Equal opportunity makes the employees satisfied about their works. Human resource management takes equal opportunity work based procedure to work the employees. Discrimination may influence the performance of the employees.

3.3.6 Recruiting in Transfer Training
Basically the fresher are not able to get the learning outcomes for the organization. The major influence for this recruitment is generated for the organizational development. The major task of the human resource management is recruiting. Human resource management finds the need of employees and selects the employees to employ the specific department of the organization. Recruitment has series of steps that discussed in the report later.

3.3.7 Ensuring Safe & Healthy Work Place
Employees prepare to work in the good environment, which make them to work without any hindrance. The transfer place of the organization should be safe and healthy. The managers should ensure the healthy workplace to train its employees in the organization. A bad environment may create unwillingness to work and bring many problems to the organization. Human resource management ensures healthy and safe workplace for its employees, so that they can work without any interruption.

3.4 Stakeholders of Transfer Strategy
The stakeholder of the transfer training strategy depends on most of the times to the procedures, which are completely evaluated by the human resource management, which end up through the becoming the norms and rituals that are performed within the organization. When the procedures repeat again and again, then the organization got the practice of evaluation of the process through the practice of these procedures within organization. In our analysis we have found that the human resource manager evaluates the training outcomes and reward them who make the training successfully (Kelly, 2001). The stakeholders come from the evaluation process. The whole organization is the stakeholder of the transfer training, because this training program will partially influence the behaviour of the organization.
The transfer training is structured way to make the training successful in an organization. It supposed to develop the organization to establish the exact thing the organization expect from their employees to establish better employment practice within the organization and the stakeholders of the organization. In most cases of our analysis, it is transfer training team, which contact the development of the employees. The employees understand the factor which makes the creation of the performance of the organization. Through playing an active role during induction seminars, the human resource management team is basically trying to transmit or transfer the organizational culture to the new employees joining a firm (Elwood, W., & Trott, 1996).

3.4 Employee Development Methods
Some development process may suit for the organization’s employee’s skill development. There are several ways of employee development in the human resource management. There are three popular and common methods. The three methods are listed below.

 Job Rotation
 Assistant-To Positions
 Committee Assignment

3.4.1 Job Rotation
Job rotation designed to improve the employee’s knowledge, skills and abilities by the way of moving employees within the organization. it helps to absorb new information and to reduce the boredom as well as develop the new ideas it can be done in two ways (Potter-1990, p 17-24).


Promoting employees worker into a new position known as vertical and short term transfer from one place to another place is known as a horizontal job rotation.

3.4.2 Assistant-To Position
Sometimes employees work under specialize professionals and sometimes seasoned with them. Working as staff assistant in the organization, an employee has to perform various duties which make to gather information and knowledge (Nadler et al, 1986).

3.4.3 Committee Assignment
Learning through following and watching others, sharing in decision making as well as investigate the organizational goals and objectives to solve problems. It designed to develop the employee’s exposure and broad his or her understanding. It is interesting and rewording to employee career growth.

Human Resource Management does the employee development by the above ways. But there are various ways which also are effective for the employee development. The three ways among the popular methods is discussed briefly in the following.

Lecture course and Seminars
Simulation Exercise
Outdoor Training

To develop the conceptual and analytical abilities, HRM tries to deliver its employees traditional forms of development through giving lecture and taking seminars. The simulation exercise is more popular training technique and almost widely used method for employee development. It designs some case studies which are related with real works. It is way of pursuing actual knowledge. Outdoor training is generated for speeding up the team works (Mondy et al, 1996).

4. Conclusion
High development in the workplace is designed through the transfer training employment. To evaluate the training within the organization need to focus on the performance within the organization. To make a successful evaluation organization develops the performance management system to encourage and fill up the gap between performance and expectation. The overall strategy is fully depends on human resource management practice. The process of job distribution, job allocation and job analysis determine the way of getting the full enforcement (Holden et al, 2004). The organization is completely depends on its people. The efficiency and effectiveness helps the organization to achieve the goals and objective. Whenever organization determines its human resource needs, it comes on to the human resource management to meet its needs. Human resource management needs job planning for its employees. Most of the human resource management faces some problem regarding the employee. It can take several actions to make the problem solved.

The human resource management can build a contractual relationship with the people who have strong ability to manage the problem. The employment at will may reduce some problem it also make some disturbance in the organization. the human resource management has to follow the rules of public policy and make assurance of the feedback of public policy violation. Human resource management should provide the guideline of discipline which will make aware employees about their work of area. It needs to include what should they do and what should they don’t. Information technology has brought the change of communication and human resource management practice will get advantage of using information technology (Rees and Mcbain, 2004). By summing up above discussion, human resource management focuses on employee and wants of the organization from employee. It not only focuses on the employee but also focuses on all activities of the organization to build up efficient and skilled workforce.

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