Monday, 27 August 2012

HRM Dissertations | Employee Relations | TESCO | Human Resources | CIPD | Job Satisfaction | Dissertation Help | www.study-aids.co.uk |

Dissertation - Role Played by Human Resource Management in Business Growth. A Study of Tesco Chapter 1: Introduction Research Title Research Aims and Objectives Research Questions Significance and Scope of the Research Chapter 2: Background of Study Understanding the Human Resource? What is Human Resource Management? Evolution of HRM Defining HRM Features of HRM Principles of HRM Characteristics of HRM Human Resource Management Objectives Scope of Human Resource Management Roles of HR Managers TESCO’s Profile Tesco Strategy Chapter 3: Literature Review Chapter 4: Research Methodology Research Design Research Philosophy Database Collection Ethics Being Taken into Consideration Chapter 5: Critical Analysis & Findings Chapter 6: Discussions Chapter 7: Recommendations Chapter 8: Conclusion References

HRM Dissertations | Employee Relations | TESCO | Human Resources | CIPD | Job Satisfaction | Dissertation Help | www.study-aids.co.uk |

HRM Dissertations | Employee Relations | TESCO | Human Resources | CIPD | Job Satisfaction | Dissertation Help | www.study-aids.co.uk |: Role Played by Human Resource Management in Business Growth. A Study of Tesco.

Friday, 17 August 2012

Dissertation Writing Strategies - Hоw tо Write а Dissertation оn Technical Research іn Fіvе Steps


Arе уоu feeling overwhelmed bу уоur dissertation? Don't lеt іt intimidate you. Read оn fоr а fеw dissertation writing strategies thаt wіll turn уоur dissertation frоm а monster іntо ѕоmеthіng а lot mоrе manageable.

1) Respect уоur dissertation

Fіrѕt оf all, acknowledge thаt writing а dissertation іѕ а complex аnd challenging project аnd treat іt accordingly. Yоur future career depends оn уоu dоіng а good job wіth it, and, mоѕt importantly, completing it.

In order tо give уоurѕеlf thе bеѕt chance оf finishing уоur dissertation, mаkе іt thе top priority оf уоur life fоr thе duration іt wіll tаkе tо complete it. Put аѕ mаnу оthеr parts оf уоur life аѕ роѕѕіblе оn hold, оr аt lеаѕt trу tо minimize уоur participation іn thеm untіl уоu hаvе completed уоur dissertation.

2) Tаkе care оf уоurѕеlf

On thе оthеr hand, bе ѕurе tо tаkе care оf yourself. Gеt regular exercise аnd еnоugh sleep. A dissertation dоеѕ nоt gеt аnу bеttеr whеn іt іѕ written bу ѕоmеоnе whо іѕ sick оr sleep-deprived.

3) Remember thаt уоu аrе thе expert

Remember thаt уоu аrе thе expert. Yоu wеrе thе оnе whо dіd thе experiments оr thе research thаt уоu аrе gоіng tо write аbоut іn уоur dissertation. Sо thеrе іѕ nо nееd tо bе stressed out. Juѕt pretend you're gоіng tо explain іt аll tо а friend оr colleague іn а vеrу long letter.

4) Understand thе basic structure оf а dissertation

Mоѕt dissertations, technical оr otherwise, follow а similar structure іf thеу аrе based оn first-hand research, whісh technical dissertations uѕuаllу are:

a) Introduction

In thіѕ section, уоu provide аn overview оf уоur entire dissertation аnd іtѕ purpose.

b) Theoretical background

In thіѕ section, уоu give аn overview оvеr thе main research оn thе topic оf уоur dissertation аnd explain hоw уоur dissertation research relates еvеrуоnе else's research. Thіѕ іѕ аlѕо thе place tо explain whаt уоu expect tо find іn уоur research, i.e., уоur research hypothesis.

c) Yоur experiments оr оthеr research

In thіѕ section, уоu describe thе research уоu dіd аnd еxасtlу hоw уоu dіd іt -- іn vеrу clear detail.

d) Yоur results

Hеrе уоu describe whаt уоur results were, аnd provide graphics аnd tables аѕ necessary.

e) Whаt іt аll means

Here, уоu describe hоw уоur results relate tо уоur hypothesis аѕ wеll аѕ оthеr people's research, аnd discuss thе ramifications оf whаt уоu found.

f) Conclusion

Thіѕ іѕ whеrе уоu present а summary оf уоur entire dissertation аnd mаkе suggestions fоr furthеr research іf уоu haven't аlrеаdу dоnе ѕо іn thе previous section.

5) Write іt аll dоwn

Onсе уоu understand thе basic structure оf уоur dissertation, thе actual writing оf іt wіll bе а lot lеѕѕ intimidating. Cоnѕіdеrіng thаt you've dоnе аll уоur research, whісh wаѕ rеаllу thе hardest part, уоur task nоw іѕ "simply" tо write іt аll down.

Start bу describing уоur experiment, i.e., bу writing sections c, d, аnd e, іn thаt order. Thеѕе ѕhоuld practically write themselves, аnd оnсе уоu hаvе completed them, you'll hаvе thе bulk оf уоur dissertation written.

Thіѕ wіll lоwеr уоur stress levels considerably, whісh ѕhоuld hеlр уоu complete уоur dissertation.

Sunday, 12 August 2012

Dissertation Editing Service

A dissertation editing service is designed to fulfill the needs of University students who want to finalize their dissertation. A professional dissertation editing service can fix all errors in a student's dissertation. Compiling the manuscnpt needed to attain the prestigious degree is by no means an easy task. It entails the successful completion of a certain number of classes, passing numerous examinations, and defending the research findings. A dissertation is the written compendium of original research conducted by the learner in partial fulfillment required for the University degree. This lays a good deal of weight to compose a seamless dissertation that is worthy of earning an excellent grade The advisers and committee members also get to assess well organized work once it has passed through the capable cycle of dissertation editing Working in regular collaboration with the lead editor from the dissertation writing service, the student can be ensured that the document is shaped to perfection This provides the doctoral student with peace of mind and decreased stress levels.

The chapter in a dissertation that bathes most brilliant doctoral scholars is the research methodology. The central rationale ot this chapter is to justify the method selected lor conducting research on the chosen subject The design, the research hypothesis in the context of the methodology adopted, subjects used. Instrumentation, data collection and data analysis procedures are to be deftly enumerated in chapter III or methodology section. A dissertation editing service can help students In these areas and more. Students are pi one to committing blunders In this chapter which have serious repercussions In the later chapters, throwing the whole dissertation into duos. A professional dissertation editing service consists ot dependable professionals who can Iron out even the smallest of slip ups and show readers that the methodology Is sound and thorough, this critical section of the dissertation must demonstrate that all variables were taken into account to claim with reasonable certainty that the results will be accurate there are innumerable advantages of hiring the right dissertation editing service at the right time hiring their assistance right trorn the start is a good idea because then the student gets a dear mapping of what Is to be done and how to proceed. As ttie student proceeds from writing one chapter after the next, he or ' she will receive beneficial directional guidance in the long run, this will minimize the number of errors to correct alterations to be made this will definitely save time and energy and cause less stress while the dissertation is in the last phase ot preparation. Dissertation editing has become a popular method adopted among docloral students who wish to make a mark and achieve academic distinction.

HRM Dissertations | Employee Relations | Employee Performance | Human Resources | CIPD | Dissertation Help | www.study-aids.co.uk |

Check out this website I found at study-aids.co.uk HRM Dissertation - Analysis of Employee Errors at Toyota (UK)

HRM Dissertation - Analysis of Employee Errors at Toyota (UK)

Friday, 10 August 2012

Globalization in Nursing


Source: Nursing Dissertations

Globalization is a term that is used when referring to the elimination of trade barriers, cultural exchange, and communication. The aim of globalization is to create worldwide openness, in order to promote the wealth of every nation. Through globalization, there occurs technological, political, economic, and cultural exchange. The major factors that make it possible for these exchanges involve infrastructure, communication, and transportation. This term cannot just be discussed and discarded because it has been in existence for many years, and it exists in different forms. The different forms have an impact on the world that we and our descendants will live in. This means that an individual understanding the world that he lives in can be of use in shaping the world, for a better tomorrow. Globalization has been of benefit to the nations, but it also needs to be watched carefully because its potential destabilizing influence needs to be controlled. Globalization has had both negative and positive impact, in the world. The impact has been felt economically, socially, politically, in terms of culture, and more. Globalization can be described by developing countries as a big boon. However, according to some people, it can only be described as a curse to the developing countries. Even with its negative effects, globalization has increased and this has highly benefited national economies, and international producers.
Globalization has its advantages and disadvantages. One of the advantages is GDP being increased. According to statistics, developing countries’ GDP appears to have doubled. It has also reduced unemployment, for example in countries like India, and China. There is also the increment of education. To the jobs that need people with higher skills, the motivation has been globalization. The demand has allowed individuals to go for higher learning. The completion can be said to be on an even plat form. Globally, the companies are competing and the global platform is one. This way, consumers have better options. Increase in foreign currency and the market is the other advantage. The process of globalization has stimulated the development of the business potential. It has also made it possible for people to improve their performance, because they can access help from affiliated companies that are located in other parts of the world.

The disadvantages with globalization are also many. For example, the distribution of wealth is uneven. Only a few people can be regarded as wealthy and especially in the developing countries, a common man is yet to experience the good side of globalization. The income gap between countries that are developed and the developing is significant. As the wealth of the developed countries continues growing, it is double that of developing nations. The wage standards are different for developing countries. In developed countries, the value that a technology worker gets is much more, compared to those in developing countries. The other limitation is the reversal of globalization which can occur in the future due to factors like war. Owing to increased trade, pollution has also increased; therefore, contributing to the emission of CO2 as well as global warming. By trade growing, it has led to the acceleration of depletion of resources that are non-renewable, for example soil.
Just as with other sectors, there is globalization in nursing. Globally, the nurses have provided quality health care, through their commitment, and contribution. The process of globalization has had a significant impact on nursing, as well as global health. Even if there are challenges and the good side of this globalization, every individual needs to realize that the future of health and Nursing depends on people’s political and collective choices.

The challenges that come with globalization of Nursing exceed the benefits. In this essay, the pros and cons of globalization in nursing are discussed, and solutions to the challenges too.

Among the challenges that are associated with higher education, which is accessible through globalization, is that the nursing practices and education methods vary internationally. There are mechanisms that enable nurses to be migrating, globally. There are even some countries that educate nurses specifically for export, and this can result in remittances to the home country.

Although efficiency can be enhanced through expansion that is led by the market, it does not lead to equity. The reason is that in the health field, there is unequal distribution of the benefits associated with competitive markets. Even with the opportunity for developing cutting edge and innovative services, competition, healthcare market, and national labor problems that are unsettled can lead to employment vulnerability. It can also reduce services that are funded by the public, and reduce access to the healthcare services, for the public.

The WTO rules are said to have a bias against countries that are developing. The trade interests seem to receive more attention compared to environmental concerns. The supporters of WTO feel that free trade can be boosted by the international trade agreements. The agreements can also lead to the creation of jobs, cutting costs, lead to flow of goods, ideas and services and this will make a country develop. This will lead to greater inequity for vulnerable groups like nurses. People not only find themselves unprepared, but also unable to compete, with regard to a global labor market that is increasingly competitive.

Due to inequity that comes with globalization of Nursing, susceptibility to diseases that are infectious increases as do those that are due to malnutrition. The children are more vulnerable to this and there is also propensity for violence, and psychiatric disorders. Those that are inappropriately affected are the women, because they are vulnerable in their child-rearing and child-bearing years.
With the globalization of this sector, for one to become a professional, it needs sacrifices and efforts. The quality that is experienced in the nursing care is what is used in measuring professionalism. However, the fee that is associated with professionalism can discourage people because of being exceptionally high. Owing to overregulation, nurses can be affected adversely. This is more so when they are concerned about how to take medical steps, because of fear of malpractice allegations. Globalization in nursing has adversely affected the poor population. Poverty is related to health expectations and conditions. Most of the diseases can be found in the poor countries. However, the resources that globally fall under health are about 10%, or less. The health investment and policies matter, yet the human resource for handling the health cases are not enough. With the fast changes that have been experienced in the social, economic, political and cultural fields, the advances in biotechnology and importance of universal perspective with regard to health ethics, have challenged people’s moral imagination in numerous ways. Through globalization, those in the nursing profession have experienced changes in their ethics. The global ethics have become dominant and are referred to instead of the local ones.
One of the good sides of this globalization is the positive impact it has had on Higher education, with regard to nurses. The demand for this education has increased globally. The education offers are across countries. Through such education, those in the Nursing profession can benefit from having educational standards that are common since the world is globalized. Having higher education is a great way of responding to the need for workers that are highly skilled. Through globalization, the nurses are able to access opportunities that enable them to develop new jobs, cutting-edge technology, and innovative services. Through globalization, nurses have been stimulated in terms of raising their standards. Expansions that are market-led will enhance efficiency for the nurses. The global demands and trends call for professionalism in nursing, with regard to nursing practice. Globalization has played a role in globalizing nursing knowledge. Nurses that live in any of the western countries communicate their research, ideas and theories freely, without censoring some material. The material reaches a numerous number of students. The educational material and array of literature allows global dissemination. Among the significant impacts of WTO are the rules that govern the nursing field, through a Mutual Recognition Agreement. The agreement was signed by Asia’s 10 countries. The aim was to promote professionalism among the nurses.

In conclusion, some of the challenges that come with globalization of nurses can be solved. For example, the rapid changes that occur to the political, social, cultural and economic fields are fast and drastic, therefore the affect an individual’s collective health. To be able to handle the challenges and processes, the discipline of nursing needs to be strengthened. The advancement must be compatible with environmental and human needs. In Nursing, combining collaborative efforts is essential. Thinking about Nurses requires reflecting globally, on the current structures, since historical roots, and applying local methods in solving problems. This way the transformation is made with ecological and social responsibility. There are strategies that are crucial with regard to care. The cultural values also need to be encouraged. This is because it can help in performing care culturally, and one must favor building health behaviors, and attitudes. Even with the presence of globalization, the future of health and Nursing depends on the people’s political and collective choices.

References
http://www.investorwords.com/2182/globalization.html
http://www.english-online.at/economy/globalization/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-globalization.htm
http://www.study-aids.co.uk/nursing/nursing.html
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1095912
http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-11692008000400021

Thursday, 9 August 2012

Analysis of an Ethical Decision

There are several facts that are related to abortion. In United States, since 1973 when a decision was made back about Roe V. Wade, the number of abortions has exceeded 50 million. By totaling up different forms of abortions, regardless of the course, it is evident that the number of abortions exceeds one million annually. Roughly, there is no difference between the number of military deaths and that of babies that are killed yearly, by abortion in America. The military deaths have occurred in every war in which US has taken part. About 3000 babies are killed through this process daily. In New York City, 41% of the pregnancies are aborted. According to new studies, 85% of the abortions are performed for convenience. In the United States, a virginal birth that has no complications costs more than $9000 while aborting a first trimester costs $451. According to a report by Homeland security this year, people that are against abortion are potential terrorists. Again, there are some governments’ reports that have described those that are protesting against abortion as potential threats.

Some clinics that perform abortions are said to have been selling parts of the aborted baby to the medical researchers. The numbers of abortions that are performed by Planned Parenthood exceed 300,000, annually. The Planned Parenthood executives are about 30 and annually, they make about $200,000 annually. Most of them do not exceed 300,000 yearly.
In addition to the facts, the second step is determining the ethical issues, in terms of legitimate competing interests. In some societies, abortion is completely banned while some allow it in some cases. In certain cases, contraceptives have been replaced by abortion. Consequently, such societies have managed to regulate the size of their population. According to some doctors, ending unwanted pregnancies is a way of planning families. On the other hand, when abortion is viewed as contraception, educating the children about the results of having casual sex cannot be effective. According to some ethicists, it is legal to have an abortion if the born child is likely to suffer from mental or physical handicaps. However, this reason is offensive especially to the disabled individuals. This is because the implication is that the lives of disabled people are not as worthy as that of the ‘normal’ ones. Some victims of incest and rape are minors. Consequently, they are not physically or mentally prepared to bring up a baby. Therefore, such victims should not bear a child that has resulted from an unfortunate incident. However, abortion is process that can result to health complications and in some cases, death of the person. To have an abortion comes with a risk of not becoming pregnant again. It is mothers that undergo through issues like labor pains and those related to parenting. She should be allowed to abort the baby if she is not capable of taking care of the baby. Raising a child with no financial and family support is impossible. A baby is a gift from God therefore there is a reason for its birth. Again, when abortion is done, it is accompanied by feelings of depression and guilt that lasts a life time.

The principles that have a bearing on this case include the biblical, constitutional, physiologic, Gnostic and libertarian principles. The deontological principles also come to bear on this situation. There are four deontological principles; utilitarianism, Kant, natural law, situation ethics and virtue ethics. The utilitarianism has concerns with outcomes or ends. The principles seek to establish whether to have an abortion comes with the greatest good. Hedonic calculus justified having an abortion because of financial pressure, work, education, and more. With Kant principle, one needs to take a maxim before universalizing it. According to Kantians, the fetus counts as humanity. The third principle is of natural law which seeks to establish the purpose or design of humans. Among the primary precepts is protecting and preserving the innocent. The secondary precept here is ‘do not abort’. According to Catholics, even when a mother’s life is threatened, the option should not be an abortion. According to this principle, to kill an innocent individual cannot be considered as an option. The exceptions to this include cases like double effect. For example in case of ectopic, pregnancy, there is the likelihood of both the mother and the fetus dying. With situation ethics, it originated from the tradition, according to which having an abortion is evil. According to this principle, pleasure is not good in its self. According to this principle, the act that is done requires that the best interests of the affected person are considered. Abortion is done only in extreme circumstances for example financial constrains. With virtual ethics, it is not easy to apply it and is concerned with the kind of person we should be. In some countries, the fetus does not enjoy human rights. In such cases, they are not included in the justice. The response that one gives is determined by the fetus’ status.

The principles that should be weighed more heavily are utilitarianism and virtual ethics. With utilitarianism, traditional views about abortion being an evil act are challenged. It supports the pro-choice position. Virtual ethics should be weighed because according to this principle, killing a fetus is not wrong. The fetus needs to have the same rights as any individual.

The alternatives to having an abortion are many, for example, one can give out the unwanted child for adoption. Other alternatives include using birth control methods to avoid unwanted pregnancies, counseling, and way of continuing with education after pregnancy, avoiding unprotected sex, mothers taking care of their babies, and providing mothers with both personal and financial support.

Different courses of actions can be developed when making the ethical decision. With adoption of the unwanted child, it requires that the process of adoption be improved so that the number of children that are adopted can increase. When there are no unwanted pregnancies, there will be no abortions. Women should be educated about the importance and how to use different birth control methods like condoms and taking pills. Women with unwanted pregnancies need access to counseling services. Through such services, they will be helped to accept the unwanted pregnancy instead of aborting. Some women conceive when they are in school. Such women need to be guided on how they can continue with education even after giving birth, instead of aborting the child in order to continue with education. Some people abort due to poverty and lack of emotional support, or the environment being conducive for them to give birth. The government should have programs through which mothers can access emotional and financial support, and be helped to raise their children too.

The above alternatives seek to prevent the women from having an abortion even when the pregnancy is unwanted. Other alternatives give the woman means of avoiding unwanted pregnancies that lead to abortions. The alternatives contradict the utilitarian’s principle which states that situations like financial constrains and lack of personal support justifies having an abortion. The alternatives support the principle of Kant in that it does not support abortion, unless the life of the mother is in danger. According to the principle of natural law, having an abortion is wrong. This principle is supported by the alternatives to abortion. Just as with the alternatives that seek to save the life of the unborn, natural laws state that to kill an innocent person is wrong and the act is considered to be evil. Situation ethics contradicts the alternatives to having an abortion. It states that abortion can be done in the interest of the affected for example after rape, lack of time to rear children. According to the alternatives, there is no situation that justifies one terminating any unwanted pregnancy. ​According to the alternatives given, even the life of the unborn is precious and that is why the alternatives seek to prevent people from having abortions. The alternatives contradict the virtual ethics because this principle does not value the life of the unborn baby.
With the above principles and alternatives at hand, the problem is solved. Having an abortion is an act that is not only considered to be evil, but also immoral. In countries where abortion is legal, women undergo feelings of guilt and emotional trauma, after having abortions. Fortunately, there are a number of alternatives that women can utilize instead of having abortions due to unwanted pregnancies. The alternatives aim at reducing the number of cases of abortions.

Source: http://www.study-aids.co.uk

Wednesday, 8 August 2012

Joint versus Separate Preference Reversal

Source: http://www.study-aids.co.uk

​Both joint and separate reversals refer to how different people tend to control their emotions (List, 2006). Joint preference reversal refers to making of decisions on several issues at the same time. In joint evaluation one can make many decisions and evaluate them simultaneously. While separate reversal refers to making of decisions one at a time. In joint evaluation, a person can reduce emotions while making decisions mostly on public actions. Joint reversal is a better form of decision-making strategy because one gets the time to analysis about something before taking action (List, 2006).

​However, separate option of decision making is desirable by people because it is the want option (List, 2006). The two preference reversals are similar in a manner that emotions do control the decision of making judgments. The difference of the two evaluations is that the willingness of paying attention to the personal desire is higher than the one of analyzing the results of the act that one may take. On joint evaluation people may take time to consider and evaluate decisions between the alternative options of a certain problem affecting them in their common life. Separate evaluation results to people failing to have time to detect the preferable course of action before doing anything they might later regret (Loewenstein, 2007).

​When considering which evaluation a consumer may take, it is better considering various things that bring effective results (List, 2006). For example, if the decision of a person is to make a goal the most valuable target, then the preferred evaluation would be the joint one. Separate evaluation would be better when the goals one ought to choose may optimize one’s experience. On both evaluations, it is clear that the separate reactions on emotions are caused by their effect on cognitive evaluation. This makes the difference between the two preference reversals (Loewenstein, 2007).

Reference

List, A. J. (2006). Using experimental methods in environmental and resource economics. New ​York:  Edward Elgar Publishing.

Loewenstein, G. (2007). Exotic preferences: behavioral economics and human motivation. New ​York: Oxford University Press.

 

Tuesday, 7 August 2012

Postgraduate Dissertations

People who are pursuing a postgraduate programme will know how hard it Is to do all the academic writing. Completing academic writing in time can be difficult, it is during such scenarios a Dissertation writing service can be a big help for postgraduate students. A dissertation is a multi-chaptered document that gives the details of the student's research and findings in a particular specialism. The real challenge lies in accurately putting into writing the months or years of hard work In the research phase. When you are new to handling such responsibility, you can use the assistance of a dissertation editing service. Many postgraduate students opt for dissertation editing services, as it helps them submit a good quality report of their research and saves them a lot of Mime. It takes a lot of time to write your dissertation, and you will also have to be cautious when you write about every important detail of your research You will need the assistance of a qualified and exper ieru ed person to guide you through your dissertation. If you have the support of an advisor who is willing to go the extra mile for your dissertation then you will finish your dissertation in record time and to a high standard It is situations like this the services provided by dissertation editing and proofreading companies come in handy The final result should look good for the observer If available, the services provided by dissertation editing should be undertaken before you submit your final draft to help you to rest assured that you will be submitting a good quality dissertation.

Students cautious of fulfilling their degree requirements pertaining to dissertations tend to miss grammatical and vocabulary mistakes. These mistakes may not be big, but they create a bad impression. You would have worked lor months or years to complete the research for your final Dissertation . It is important that you submit a dissertation that is error free and clearly highlights your research. Qualified professional dissertation editing services will spot errors with referencing, footnotes, citations, author names, quotations, and dates. You will be satisfied when you turn in your work, and will be confident in the work you have done because a qualified professional has proofread the entire document. The services provided by the professional proofreader will ensure you have enough time to concentrate on your research rather than mistakes in your writing. You can also be rest assured that your research material is safe with them.

Saturday, 4 August 2012

Exploring the Impact of Cause - Related Marketing on Consumer Attitude to the Brand Purchase Intention

Executive Summary
Global business is exponentially growing and so is the competition in these markets, businesses today is continually adopting the path of innovation and growth through strategies and business process implementation. One of the most rapidly evolving areas of international business today is the area of international marketing practices and concepts businesses today are introducing and applying innovative and creative techniques and communication channels to best reach their target customers. Businesses today through the use and application of the branding as a marketing tool are making efforts to make them distinct and different from competitors, ensuring they maximise on competitive advantage. Marketing today has revolutionised its global outlook towards business objectives and emerged from a traditional marketing practice to relationship building by means of relationship marketing.


This concept over the years have attained much attention from researchers, owing to the fact that this concept is believed to be a relatively new concept, and have classified this marketing strategy as one that has orientation towards the businesses marketing communication and thus by many is considered and classified as a marketing mix marketing strategy.

Although American Express initiated the use of this new cause related marketing strategy around 25 years ago, it is still considered by many scholars, researchers and practitioners to be a relative new concept, and have shown great amount of interest in this marketing communication strategy. The research at this point identifies that even with much interest and studies conducted in this research area, there is a possible gap in the existing literature the research primarily identifies this gap to be as the “lack of literature that is available on cause-related marketing especially from the consumer perspective”, the research proposes to identify and make efforts to fill the gap. This is also the field of interest for this dissertation and in particular how does cause-relates marketing strategy shape consumer attitude, perception and buying behaviour? In order to find out the answer of this question the research has relied on different theories and in addition we conducted a questionnaire among international students. The results, even though restricted trough the sample, showed that there is a connection between the cause-related marketing and buying behaviour and attitude. Consumers are more likely to support companies which are engaged in cause campaigns and tend to develop positive attitude toward this company and its products.

Business today is getting very competitive and challenging, with business managers continually thinking of taking new initiatives in the field of marketing, strategic thinking and other business initiatives to generate business and deliver to the maximum. Every business enterprise today wants to capitalise on the opportunities and thus attain a large part of market share and position them in a strategically sound position, from where the business can confidently forecast and foresee the future of the business with great certainty and high degree of confidence.
One of the more recently surfaced marketing concept and application is the cause related marketing concept, where business approach business marketing practices by means of associating themselves with non-profit making businesses; it is believed that this marketing concept was first introduced by American Express about 25 years back, principally as per the cause related marketing concept, the business declares to spend a defined amount of money for a special cause, thus driving sales even further, like in the case of American Express the business declared that for every new card issues the business would donate one cent for the recovery of the statue of Liberty.

As mentioned by Patterson and Stutts (2000) businesses today are increasing entering into commercial partnerships with non-profit organisations to achieve the desired business objectives. As mentioned by Marín and Ruiz (2007), businesses in today’s business environment are increasingly finding it difficult to differentiate their brands from that of its competitors by employing traditional attributes of brand measurement which very broadly include elements like price, quality, the primary reason for this being that globalisation has transformed the market into a competitive, platform of economic exchange. Furthering this literature Bhattacharya and Sen (2003) mention that in order to ensure business success it is very vital that the business proposes products or services that successfully form meaningful objectives in the mindset of the customers; this can be established by associating the product with symbolic value such as “altruism” and “civic mindedness”. They further this marketing literature with complete support from Maignan & Ralston, (2002) and mention that the process of building meaningful and stable relationship adds value and is believed to be beneficial to both the related parties, many corporations have even discovered the relevance of strategic social alliances, have given way to Corporate Social Responsibities initiatives, which has now become a part of the businesses overall objective,. A Cause-Related marketing strategy as mentioned by Tsai (2009), has today managed to attain specific market interest, he furthers his research by mentioning that

“CRM has gain ever-growing popularity among brand marketers, who believe this approach helps to enhance both-brand attitude and purchase intention”.

Among the other elements of communication marketing the area that has reported the highest marketing spend is the investments that the businesses today are making on establishing meaningful and efficient communication with the customers. As reported by IEG sponsorship report, 2009, this marketing spend as reported in the US showed an increase by 5.5 % in the year 2008, which was reported to have risen from $1.44 million to $1.52 billion in the year 2008. These facts and figures are reflective of the fact that businesses today are becoming increasing customer-centric. Endacott (2004) mentions that are a win-win undertaking for all the associated parties like the business, non-profit organisation and the customers themselves. CRM today has evolved as one of the most effective and efficient management tool today through which businesses successfully drive sales, at the same time grow their publicity and market reputation, the other parties involved benefits as well, the non-profit organisation gain both on publicity and profitability while the third party involved the most significant one the customer gains by having a feel of making a contribution to a noble cause at the same time purchasing a product that is up to the expected quality and serves the needs of the customer to great satisfaction Polonsky & Wood, (2001)

As mentioned in the work done by Hou et al (2008), the partnership between the business organisation and non-profit making organisation is identified and defined by the cause that is desired to be best served by the business, he further adds to the literature by mentioning that “how a corporation chooses a cause depends on different variables that are deemed or perceived important by the consumers of this corporation.” Gupta and Pirsch add to this by commenting that the business should always look to associate itself with a cause that best fits its own corporate integration and the consumers it aims to target. Gupta and Pirsch (2006) then conclude my mentioning that relationship between organisations, cause and the customer is defined and identified on “how the fit level between these three groups influences consumer response by generating a positive attitude toward the corporation-cause alliance and purchase intention for the sponsored product. They found that the higher fit level, the better the result the corporations obtain”.
Through this research, the researcher aims to investigate into the concept of Cause- related marketing practice and principle, with an objective to explore the available literature, with a critical evaluation inclination. The proposed research would aim to establish the relationship between Cause-related marketing and the buying behaviour and attitude reflected by customers. As final outcome the through findings of this research would establish that customers would prefer and support companies that are associated with cause-related campaigns and thus have a tendency to form a positive attitude towards the business concerned.

1.1 Research question
The research trough initial survey of literature has already established that although cause –related marketing concept is a relatively new concept in the field of international marketing. Numerous research literatures have reflected the existence of the presence of relationship between Cause-related marketing and consumer attitude and behaviour.
Businesses today are taking innovative marketing initiatives to fulfil business objectives, it is very important that these initiatives are in line and parallel to the businesses own objective of existence, keeping this in mind the research proposes to investigate and evaluate the objectives of CRM and how they form parallels with Business objectives and proposes to answer the following two questions

“How can the objectives of caused related marketing be described”?
“How can the strategic approach used by companies involved in cause related marketing be described”?

The researcher strongly believes that the answers to these research questions would clear the understanding of Cause-related marketing concept and marketing, enhancing and enriching the existing literature available on this newly emerged marketing initiative gaining popularity at a rapid pace in the world of international marketing.

1.2 Aims and objectives
The researcher through this research aims to uplift the understanding of a fairly new marketing concept, Cause-Related marketing, this concept of marketing is believed to have established on the dynamics of communication mix thus the researcher would through this research aim to explore marketing mix in greater depth. The primary aim of this research would be establishing and exploring the relationship between Case-Related marketing strategy and the attitude and behaviour of the customer, eventually leading them to taking a favourable decision of purchase in the interest of the business.

Objectives of the research can be identified as below:
• Developing an in-depth understanding of Cause-Related marketing strategy.
• Exploring the communication mix the business in context to Cause-Related marketing strategy.
• Critically analysing the dynamics of the drivers of the customer attitude and behaviour, defining and addressing them a Cause –Related marketing strategy perspective.

2. Literature Review

2.1 Introduction to the concept of marketing communication
As mentioned by Westberg (2004) marketing communication can be identified and defined as the communications that takes place between an organisation and its customers, the primary objective of the communication being a highlight of the uniqueness and element of differentiation of a particular brand with the intension of purchase reflected by the customer. Schultz et al (1994) further adds to the literature by mentioning that communication is an integral part of marketing and the current market evolution and the revolutionization of marketing concepts and practice have today made them inseparable and irrelevant without each other.
Although misunderstood marketing communication is very much different from the promotion activities undertaken by a business, the primary difference being a communication is a bi-directional exchange, while a promotion is just a representation of business offering, introduced to attract more customers, while retaining the existing customer base.

Marketing communications objectives are derived from an organization's overall marketing objective. So the objectives are viewed in different ways, but tend to have similar characteristic (Westberg, 2004). Several researches have revealed that the objectives are related to creating a certain brand image and stimulate purchase intention (Shimp, 2003; Rossiter & Pecy, 1998).

Kotier and Keller (2009) have studied how marketing communication achieves these objectives. With the marketing communication, marketers can tell or show how and why a product is used, by what kind of person, and where and when. They can also link their brand to other people, place, event, brand, experience, feeling, and thing. Meanwhile, the consumer can learn about who makes the product and what the company and brand stands for. After that the consumer establishes the brand in his memory and creates a brand image, followed by intention to buy the product.

Therefore, the role of marketing communication is to move the customer along a hierarchy of effects including awareness, knowledge, preference, conviction and ultimately the purchase of product (Belch, 1998).

2.2 Exploring Cause-Related marketing as a marketing strategy
As defined by Varadarajan and Menon (1988, p. 60 cited in Gupta & Pirsch, 2006) caused related marketing can be very clearly defined as a marketing initiative undertaken as a process where the organisation that is engaged in marketing activities aims to associate itself with a cause that has social significance and at the same time contributes towards the welfare of the society it operates in, this marketing strategy is predominantly associated with the marketing communication mix, that is applied as one of the marketing strategies of the business. Peters et al (2007) mentions that since the time of inception cause related marketing has a deep impact on business performance, and the generation of the overall corporate image.

2.3 Benefits and risks of Cause-Related marketing
Causes with a non-controversial nature are proven to have a greater success than ones with a controversial nature. A controversial nature cause may even harm the company’s image. However, proponents and practitioners agree that cause-related marketing campaigns are very useful. The amount of money directed in such strategy proves this as well. Berglind and Nakata (2005) describe “reasons for engaging in CRM. They start with that it helps the bottom line, as its primary scope is the financial benefit”. Further on it builds the brand and enhances the corporate reputation. Selecting the right cause and associating the company with it, help to improve the company’s image and translate it into brand memorability by the customers. Other benefits from the CRM strategy are generating goodwill and improving of the employees’ morale and retention. In times of crisis, goodwill may be crucial by preventing long term damages to the company, whereas employees’ morale improvements are important in the human-resource building facet.

“Other parties which benefit from CRM are the NPOs. CRM increases their fundraising, as their primary reason for getting into such kind of relationship with a profit organization is that it heightens their exposures and message efficacy”. All these features supporting a good CRM strategy can turn around and lead to the opposite effect. Weak links between company and a cause can be harmful. It could happen that consumer perceives the whole as a “cashing in” on other people’s misfortune. Short term promotions are not good for supporting the fit between the brand and the cause for consumers and this fails to build the brand in the desired way (King, 2001).

2.4 CRM as a form of marketing communication
Kotler and Kelier (2009, p. 512) state that “the marketing communication mix consists of eight major modes of communication. These are advertising, events and experiences, pubic relation, direct marketing, interactive marketing, and sale promotion.” Westberg (2004) states that cause-related marketing is a unique marketing communication strategy, which is differing from sale promotion. Bronn and Vrioni (2001, p. 214) suggested that this is a “practice of advocating corporate social responsibility in marketing communication activities.”

2.5 Relevance of the literature to the research
The literature briefly reviewed in this research proposal reflects that Caused related marketing, in the world of marketing has evolved as one of the most vital marketing communication tool, where businesses today are conveying and communicating to their customers by means of establishing a positive influence on the customers, tilting their purchase decision in a positive direction. The research proposal has also reflected the importance of CRM study on the fact that cause related marketing today is rapidly evolving as a marketing strategy that businesses are employing to win consumer trust and liability thus attaining competitive advantage over increasing competition. In order to establish the theoretical framework the research proposal has first established the meaning and concept of cause related marketing, and then has gradually moved strongly identifying CRM as a strategy employed by any business to attain a strategically sound position in the present and future market.

3. Research methods and design

3.1 Overview
One of the key aspects of the research that establishes the outcome of the research is the employed research methodology, which would include data collection techniques and applied qualitative or quantitative research approach to answer the set research question and thus attain the research objectives. The methodology of the research to a great extend is determined and driven by the literature review and the findings from the applied methodology not only uplifts this existing review but in congestion the results attain validity. Further to this it is the research design that defines the data collection and technique framework reflecting the research technique adopted by the research Saunders et al (2007).

3.2 Research Philosophy
As mentioned by Saunders et al (2007) every research is driven by a research philosophy which is nothing but the different methods that are employed for the research methodology determining the nature and cause behind the research, over the years three primary research philosophies have surfaced in the literature available on research methodology namely, Positivism, Interpretivism or realistic research philosophies. The researcher for this research adopts the positivism research approach, where the researcher would aim to re-establish the facts and significance of CSR in developing customer and attitude towards a brand or organisation.

3.3 Data Sources
Primary sources:
As mentioned by Veal (2006) primary data may be classified as data that is collected directly from the source, employing numerous data collection techniques like face to face interviews, survey, questionnaires, unstructured interviews and focus groups. As reflected in the work done by Saunders et al (2007) there are significant numbers of advantages are associated with the primary data collection techniques which include relevant and specific information collection collected directly from the key players and participants in the research area, exchange of opinions and views and most significantly a real life understanding of the area of the proposed research.
The researcher in this research proposes to use structured interview as primary collection tool for collecting primary data. Sample size: the sample size employed the researcher would be at least 6 interviews for this research. Sample population: The sample population for this research would be general populations with random sampling technique, the reason being the researcher wants to best gauge the customers attitude and orientation towards a brand that follows Cause-Related marketing strategy.

Secondary sources:
Secondary sources play a very vital role in forming the theoretical framework for a research, which in turns forms and shape the direction of the research, including identifying the research questions and the methodology of the research. A rich source for secondary data for the researcher would be the university portal available for a student that forms an electronic library for students for easy access and review.

3.4 Research Approach
Saunders et al (2007) has indicated the presence of either inductive or deductive research approaches determined by the nature and needs of the research, the researcher for this research proposes to employ the deductive research approach, which is also referred to as the funnel research approach, the research keeping the qualitative research approach which is characteristic to deductive research approach would be through a questionnaire approach, where the customer perception about a brand is measured in regards to its association with a cause.

3.5 Research ethics
Research ethics are very significant to the validity of the entire research (Saunders et al, 2007), it is very important that proper research ethics in terms of data collection and methodology are applied to ensure the success of the research. The researcher for this proposed research would be ensuring that all research ethics are kept into consideration during the course of the research, which would include interaction with other human sources of information during the process of interviews and questionnaires, the researcher would ensure that no information is either attained for used in false pretence and would only be used in conjunction with the research aims and objectives.

3.6 Validity and credibility of the research
With any qualitative or quantitative research, there is the issue of validity. This can be tested by ‘whether the interpretations of the data are fair to the data’ (Mason, 1996, p. 24). In order to best reach and fulfil this criterion, the interpretation of the data will be made accessible to the respondents and based on their approval and feedback changes have been made in the analysis. Furthermore, the reliability and the validity of this research are meaningful by the references it makes to previous theories and researches. Also, it is known that when observations are presented stripped of information about how it was collected, there are no meaningful interpretation that others can place on it. Therefore, this section of the research aims to eradicate such issues and increase the objectivity of the research (where objectivity is composed of reliability and validity according to Kirk & Miller, 1986).

The secondary research initiated with the regular search of data in the University library keeping aside all the relevant literature and data information about and around the subject area of study, these secondary sources that were generally in the form of academic journals and other relevant social articles were all grouped together as a rich source of secondary data and were filed for further future reference.

The academic electronic source of secondary information formed very rich state of the art academic information that was reliable and was available in big quantity and ranged over many academic and professional writers. Thus bringing to true likeness to what Bryman and bell (2007) commented upon journals being dependable sources of current information on managerial and electronic commerce issues.

3.7 Data collection technique
The researcher for this research would be employing both the primary and secondary sources of data collection, the secondary information would be collected with an objective of forming the theoretical framework for this research, it would include customer satisfaction, loyalty and marketing models and theories. This theoretical framework would help the researcher to structure and frame the research question locating any possible gaps in the existing literature. The primary source of secondary information would be through academically recognised sources like books, journals etc that can be obtained from university library and ethos e-source that is readily available to students.
The researcher would also look to collected primary information; this information as proposed by the researcher would be collected by conducting customer attitude survey with an attempt to evaluate how CRM influences their purchase decision. The researcher proposes a sample size of 15 surveys, with general population as target population, located in different locations in London.

3.8 Why qualitative research?
The primary objective of the researcher for this research is to establish a theories and findings that already exist and are proved over a period of time, the researcher does not intend to prove any hypothesis, or even evaluate statistical data, prove a mathematical relation or even establish a financial or non-financial value. Keeping this into consideration and a complete theoretical approach to the research, the researcher for this research has decided to make a qualitative research approach and analysis. The researcher in this research in this research would aim to look at theoretical aspect of CRM and they influence the attitude of a customer towards a favourable purchase intention.

3.10 Data Analysis
The researcher would be conducted data analysis employing a qualitative research approach, the researcher for this research would be critically evaluating the secondary information collected from various sources, addressing theoretical models, literature and previous researcher on customer attitude towards CRM. The researcher then through the primary research finding would establish a link between the reviewed theory and findings, thus enriching and adding validity to the research findings.
The researchers approach would be purely qualitative, where the researcher would establish the research questions and achieve the objectives defined by the researcher, through valid and reliable links between theory and primarily findings.

4. Conclusion
Caused related marketing is significantly gaining momentum in the recently surfaced marketing literature and has successfully managed to gain the attention of marketing practitioners and researchers across the length and breadth of the globe. This concept in marketing strategy is believed to be relatively new and still reflects areas of concern and gap in the existing literature, the researcher through this research would aim to form a theoretical framework on the basis of critically analysis of the existing literature and then further the research with quantitative research methodology, the findings of which would add validity and support to the existing literature thus adding more value to the research aim and objectives.
The researcher would approach this research with a perspective of analysing a customer’s attitude and behaviour towards a brand or organisation that associates itself to a cause that represents it as a positive player in the market, at the same time gives the customer a feeling of satisfaction and content of being associated with the cause. This research proposal also reflects that there is a lot of scope of further understanding the Cause-Related marketing strategy, which is exponentially gaining significance in the practical world of marketing.

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